Solar home systems are stand-alone photovoltaic systems that supply power for lighting and devices to remote off-grid households. They are suitable for residential applications and home appliances such as lighting, computer and water pump.A Solar home system is designed to supply DC and/or AC electrical appliances. This consists of solar module connected to solar charge controller, inverter and battery. The generated DC power is stored into battery and converted to AC power for supplying to AC loads.
SHS usually operate at a rated voltage of 12 V direct current (DC) and provide power for low power DC appliances such as lights, radios and small TVs for about three to five hours a day. Furthermore they use appliances such as cables, switches, mounts, and structural parts and power conditioners / inverters, which change 12/ 24 V power to 240VAC power for larger appliances. SHS are best used with efficient appliances so as to limit the size of the array.
A SHS typically includes one or more PV modules consisting of Solar panels, a charge controller which distributes power and protects the batteries and appliances from damage and at least one battery to store energy for use when their is no sunlight.
1.Solar panels :These absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity or heat. A photovoltaic (PV) module is a packaged, connect assembly of typically 6×10 photovoltaic solar cells.
2. power inverter:This is an electronic device that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC).
The input voltage, output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling depend on the design of the specific device or circuitry. The inverter does not produce any power; the power is provided by the DC source.
3.A Battery: is a device consisting of one or more electro-chemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars. When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode. The terminal .
4.A charge controller:Also known as charge regulator or battery regulator limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. It prevents overcharging and may protect against over-voltage, which can reduce battery performance or lifespan, and may pose a safety risk. It may also prevent completely draining …